This event is seared into my memory for life! It was after lunch at an all-day leadership meeting. We were chatting away at our table, oblivious to the dishes and leftovers. The CEO walked over, asked if I was done, then cleared my plate and cutlery away. I was fairly new to the organization, so I searched the faces of my colleagues at the table, wondering, “Is this normal? Has this happened before?” The look of shock on the face of a director who reported directly to the CEO said it all. Her jaw dropped, she held up her hands in disbelief and shook her head slowly. Obliviously, this had never happened before. And it was a powerful, unforgettable demonstration of servant leadership in action. Now, if the CEO could do this, then every other leader of the organization could emulate it.
Weeks ago, a reader asked what attributes a project manager needs other than specific technical PM skills? Servant leadership topped my list. How does a project manager demonstrate it? There are many simple ways. On one project, there was an item on the critical path, and it all depended on one busy, yet unnoticed, low-key person performing a labourious task on a specific day. I was going to be away at a conference. So I arranged for someone else to get her favourite drink for her on that particular day. That gave her the added boost she needed to get the task done.
As a project manager, your success depends on the contribution of many indirect reports. These project team members have other daily duties competing for their time. Their perception and experience of you will impact how engaged they are and whether they will go the extra mile for you and the project. Recently I heard one person reminisce that project managers used to be kind but many of them have since retired; in the next breath, they complained that new project managers are selfish. Now that is one person’s experience in one company and I would like to believe that it is not generally true. I hope you will do your part to help create the reality of project managers as servant leaders. You will be surprised at how tiny acts of service can help lift the morale of your project team and influence the culture of your organization.
It was my first few days on the job. I was checking for letter mail in the mailroom. (Yes, this was decades ago.) I froze and tried not to be noticed when the president walked in. In my previous company, you never approached or talked to the CEO. Well, I was about to find out how different my new organization was. “Hi Wan, how are you today?” greeted the president whom I have never met in person, let alone speak with. As a fresh hire in IT, not a manager or supervisor, I was so surprised that he knew me and my name. I must have mumbled a reply. We had a short friendly conversation. I don’t recall anything specific but I definitely remember the impact that encounter had on me decades later.
That simple greeting was, for me, an example of servant leadership in action. This busy president cared to learn the names of new hires so that he could greet them by name at the very first encounter. As a project manager, you can do the same. In this era of remote work-from-home teams, you can learn the names of everyone on your project team and sub-teams, and schedule a brief get-to-know you online meeting.
Take it a step further and learn the names of every new hire who could potentially be on your project. Reach out to them on their first few days at work. Tell them that they can approach you with questions as they settle into the company. As a project manager, you have a broad horizontal view across the organization. New employees tend to work within their departmental silos. They are generally keen to learn about other departments and key projects. By reaching out and helping new hires early in their jobs, you build relational capital. You have a better chance of getting their support when your project rolls out changes.
Years later, when the president left his post, he again reached out over the phone to say thank you. Again, that’s something that I remember to this day. Not what he said, but that he bothered to call. As a project manager or a PMO, you too can exercise servant leadership by saying a personal thank you to everyone who contributed to making a project successful. Include this in your project plan from day one. Whether it’s a hand-written card with personal notes from project leaders or a video recorded thank you, appreciation goes a long way towards getting the commitment of the same people, already busy with operational work, when you call on them again to put in that little extra effort to achieve your next project goal.
Have you ever been on a project where everything seems to be going well until a month before the deadline when suddenly, without any warning signs, its headed for failure? Failure comes in many shapes and sizes. The deadline could be missed, quality may be subpar, or the budget exceeded. The project status flips from green to red without going through an amber warning state. You can prevent this by having regular project health checks, preferably performed independently by an auditor or external consultant.
Like their medical equivalent, project health checks serve to detect underlying conditions that may not be evident at the surface. If left undetected and unresolved, over time, small problems can grow malignant and prove critical at later stages. When should you conduct a thorough project medical exam? If you have never had a medical health check performed by your doctor, now is a good time to schedule one. Similarly, if you have never conducted a project health check, get one done as soon as possible. You want to uncover any problems while they are still small and easy to fix.
A month after the project starts is a good time for a first check. This is to ensure that the right processes, team dynamics, resources and governance are in place and functioning well. At this early stage, missing or weak foundational pieces such as stakeholder engagement, communications and change management can be rectified with less effort.
Once the basic project structure and processes are established and functioning well, half-way through the project schedule is a natural time for another check. Assuming a one-year project, a health check should be performed after six months. If the project spans multiple years, then health checks should be conducted at least once a year. These mid-point checks ensure progress towards the end goal is on track, ground-level risks and delays, if any, are known and any changes in the external environment are factored into the project plan. If needed, a strategic pivot can be made halfway through the project in order to meet new goals.
Towards the end of a project is not a good time for a health check. Any issues should have been identified at the half-way mark and actively managed in the second half. Often, it is too late to start to address problems if they only surface late in the timeline. At this stage, issues become emergencies and the project team needs to escalate, get resources, and use different tactics to double-down to reach their targets.
It is appropriate to perform a health check several months after project closure to determine whether the transfer to operations has been successful, the level of benefits sustainment, and what continuous improvement efforts are necessary to safeguard and boost return on investment (ROI). Adding regular health checks to your PMO toolkit is a step forward in organizational project maturity. If done for the entire portfolio, it helps with organizational capacity management, planning for staggered delivery dates, and management of stakeholder expectations.
The year is 2000. In a daring move, General Motors decides to revitalize its brand with a concept vehicle. Initial market response to the bold new look of the Pontiac Aztec was very positive. It was the “Most Appealing Entry Sport Utility Vehicle” according to JD Powers. Customers gave the Aztec among the highest satisfaction ratings in its class. By the iron triangle project measures of scope, time and cost, the Pontiac Aztec was a success. In business terms however, the Aztec didn’t even come close to breaking even. The return on investment was negative.
Traditional project measures that focus on output metrics are not enough. Projects need to evolve and start to monitor outcomes. Back in 2016, PMI published a thought leadership series on benefits realization. Returning to the analogy of the automotive industry, a project may be focused on designing and manufacturing a new car. But there is no benefit realized until a customer buys the car and drives it. For that to happen, there needs to be marketing, sales, financing, driver training, licensing, and insurance. This is nothing new for a mature industry but for emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things, project managers need to cast an eye beyond delivering new devices to seeing them adopted in the market.
Leading edge project offices have already incorporated benefits realization into its methodology and framework. If you are not part of such a PMO, here’s what you can do as a project manager. Read PMI’s articles on this subject. Start by holding a meeting to identify benefits during the initial phase of your project. Create a benefits register and assign a benefit owner to each item. At every milestone, report on benefits delivered. At the close of a project, when handing over to operations, hold a benefits sustainment meeting. List all actions that need to be taken to sustain benefits. Create metrics of key benefits. Every quarter, monitor and report the benefit metrics to the organization. This can be a great way to motivate employees who want to see that their work is making a difference.
Often projects are completed and initial benefits realized. Project resources are then diverted to new projects and focus shifts away from sustaining benefits. This does not maximize project investments in the long run. Measuring success based on whether the projects are completed on time, on budget and within scope is myopic. What’s critical is the harder work of measuring outcomes: did the project deliver intended business value and sustain long term benefits?
Benefits are not all about the bottom line. Leading organizations have mission statements that go beyond that. These could be about building communities, reducing carbon emissions, improving health and myriad ways to make the world a better place. Align your project outcomes to your organizational mission, find ways to measure it, then report on them regularly. As a side benefit, this could propel your project management career forward.
Last week, two friends were invited to a consultation but it turned out that the decision had already been made by the top person. The consultation was only for show. After having volunteered with this organization for over a decade, they will start to withdraw and eventually end their association. Similar “consultative” meetings occur in work settings and while employees may not leave, their hearts have walked out the door. Without fully engaged employees, the company’s performance and bottom line suffers. Human resources is then tasked with solving the problem and cultivate a more engaged workforce.
Where does project management fit in all this? In fact, project managers have a pivotal role to play. At the start of projects, they create the RACI framework. They should identify all stakeholders throughout the life of the project and insist that they be kept informed. If the project results in a lot of change, then stakeholders should be invited to self-select whether they want to be consulted. The understanding is that consultation doesn’t mean that they will necessarily be happy with the final decision—only that in the process of decision making, their voices are heard. The commitment of those to be consulted is that they participate in meetings.
Project sponsors and key decision makers may want fewer voices in meetings. They may think that stakeholders impacted later in the project may only need to be consulted closer to rollout. Here’s where project managers need to fall back on best practice and insist that all stakeholders be represented at the start. So long as they are part of the project kickoff, stakeholders can understand the why of the project and when it comes time to roll out changes in the future they are prepared to absorb the impacts.
A case in point of failure in consultative process leading to project failure is the 2011 British Columbia Harmonized Sales Tax. Financially, the HST would have boosted BC’s economy. But British Columbians were unhappy by a lack of consultation in the process of implementing it. In a referendum, 55% voted to overturn the HST.
On the flip side, businesses need to be agile and respond quickly to changing market conditions. A consultative approach doesn’t work well in emergency situations such as COVID-19. Overall, for many organizations facing a variety of situations, a culture that supports a balanced approach to consultative decision-making and employee engagement is ideal. When achieved, it’s like cruising at maximum fuel efficiency.
A friend who’s an architect once joked, “My clients want a design that is good, fast, and affordable. I tell them to pick any two. If the design is good and fast, the price will be high. Something good and affordable will take more time. And if you want it fast and cheap, then it won’t be good.”
The same can be said of agile projects. The same three variables are at play: quality, delivery time and cost. Delivery time is fixed by the duration of the sprint. Cost or budget is also relatively fixed based on a stable team and technology. So the only wiggle room is scope. To get high quality deliverables within a fixed sprint, the scope must be right-sized to fit the sprint. Too large of a scope and quality suffers. This requires a shift in mindset but that’s not all.
There is the question of organizational culture and the speed of agile transformation. Agile is a strange animal. It thrives in different cultures dependent on its size and maturity. When it is young and little, think of agile being introduced to one team in IT, it thrives in a bottoms-up culture where the Agile Manifesto rules, teams are empowered by facilitative scrum masters, and decisions are made by the teams.
After some small, low-hanging fruit successes, agile grows from being a child to a teenager. All of IT may want to switch to agile. Other departments want to get a taste of agile success too. This is a difficult time. Agile teams may feel they have demonstrated how to create value for the organization and want to take the lead. Departmental managers, especially those new to agile, may not understand the new methodology but nevertheless, want its quick wins. Here’s where top-down decision-making needs to release some control to agile teams. If this doesn’t happen, agile will most likely fail to take root and may be abandoned by the organization.
Should agile survive the teenage years, then the next level of maturity is to scale it up to the entire organization where all departments embrace it. Another cultural shift is needed here. Scaled agile requires extreme discipline by all players. In other words, a top-down command-and-control culture that also understands agile methodology is what is needed. Bottoms-up decision-making is not going to cut it when scaling agile. Here’s where agile teams may need to give up some level of autonomy. This may be difficult to do if they were the champions who introduced agile to the organization in the first place.
The best case scenario would be for some of these early agile champions to have been promoted into senior leadership in tandem with the growth of agile in the organization. Like the growth of a child to a mature adult, there are key transition points for agile to scale into an organization. Knowing when and where these thresholds are and being appropriately agile when it comes to cultural changes is a key factor in successful agile transformations.
Another approach to agile transformation is to start with an agile mindset first. In a (post?)-pandemic VUCA world, the C-suite is adept at pivoting to survive and leverage new opportunities to thrive. They could start by switching from year long projects (annual sprint) to quarterly projects (3-month sprint). In so doing, they are automatically scoping down project deliverables into smaller chunks. Then they could ask for monthly deliverables. Monthly milestones translate to 1-month sprints. All this is achievable using traditional project management techniques. It also allows all departments to gradually adjust to shorter delivery cycles. It’s not just IT that needs to adjust, marketing, communications, operations, and support all need to be in lockstep.
Once an organization commits and all departments deliver on a regular monthly sprint, value is being delivered faster. There will then be less resistance to switching to a three-week sprint at this point. Here, traditional project management techniques must give way to agile methods. With the organization experiencing the benefits of shorter cycles, there will be less resistance to adopt agile enterprise-wide and eventually transition to a two-week sprint.
In conclusion, there are two approaches for agile transformation. The bottoms up approach, though more common, is also fraught with complexities of cultural transition. The top-down approach, starting with an agile mindset and traditional project management, experiencing the benefits of agile, then switching to agile methodology is, in my humble opinion, a surer path to success. A final ingredient to ensure success: a PMO that is comfortable and flexible with traditional and agile approaches can help navigate and support the organization through the various stages of a successful agile transformation.
Having worked from home for weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic, you may be relishing the return to the office and in-person meetings. After all, you may have suffered from Zoom fatigue due to too many online meetings. However, the post-COVID-19 work environment is going to be different. Physical distancing will be the norm. In-person meetings, if held, will be in large rooms with fewer people and lots of space in between.
It is likely that some team members will continue to work from home while others work in the office, perhaps with rotating schedules i.e. not everyone will be in the office at the same time. When everyone was working from home, you adopted de facto best practice for virtual team meetings: everyone on their own computer: one person, one screen, one mic and one speaker.
How do you maintain that for a hybrid situation with some participants In a physically distanced office and other participants working from home? The solution: invest in a headset for each worker. The headset should have a built-in noise cancellation mic. This is to block out background noise such as coworkers talking nearby, loud machines or traffic from outside.
Don’t buy the cheapest headsets because they tend to be uncomfortable for long term use. You want something you don’t mind having over your ears for the entire day. I have been using my headset for more than 5 years now: it’s very comfortable, sounds good and has great noise cancellation capability.
Once you have this for every worker, you no longer need to book a large room and risk physically distanced meetings. The effect of having some people meet in person and others join online is a two-tier meeting. Those in the same room have higher communication bandwidth and those online suffer a lower bandwidth. The worst thing that can happen is the online participants feel left out and proceed to tune out of the meeting.
Years ago, at a PMI conference, a speaker said, “If you have one virtual participant in a meeting, you have a virtual team—and the best thing you can do for a virtual team is to have everyone be virtual i.e. one computer per person.” That levels the playing field, ensures that there is one conversation and everyone feels left in. As in any effective project meeting, I leave you with one decision and follow-up action: to sustain the benefits of online meeting best practice by purchasing a headset for every member of your team who doesn’t have one.
Projects drive change. What drives projects? Teams do. The success or failure of your project is dependent on the strength of your project team. Traditional teams don’t cut it anymore in the emerging project economy, where operational work is automated and value-added human work happens within the context of projects.
In its thought-leadership publication, The Pulse of the Profession, PMI highlights the DNA of teaming 2.0: agile, change-ready, collaborative, innovative, and led with empathy. What is the most important leadership skill for teaming 2.0? Collaborative leadership. That begs the question: how collaborative is your organizational and project culture?
Here’s how to strengthen collaborative leadership:
1. Recognize and reward leaders who demonstrate this skill.
2. Bring in facilitation training for team leaders.
3. Strike a balance between collaboration and agility. If decisions take too long, teams risk not being agile by over-collaborating.
As the project manager, you are the link to all stakeholders and project team members. If you used to work in the same physical office, with an open office layout and co-located teams, you benefited from high bandwidth communications. Not just you, but the entire team talked to each other, brainstormed and solved problems much more easily. You bump into each other at the coffee machine and over lunch. That’s why consultants fly from coast to coast–to work more closely with other team members and increase the speed of delivery. While remote collaboration tools help, timezone differences and perhaps the textual nature of some of these tools limit the communication bandwidth.
In these scenarios, what can the project manager do to help project team members feel engaged instead of isolated? Remember, they are not just isolated from you, they are also missing the connection with other team members. Also affected — but usually forgotten — are stakeholders who are not actively working on a project but who will be needed in the next phase or will be impacted during roll-out.
Here are a few tips on how to keep all stakeholders engaged:
Send out a daily update on your project progress. This needs to be sent out broadly to all stakeholders, including those not actively working on the project but who will be affected in the next phase or upon rollout. Here’s where you can shine as a PM. Many managers think that other managers don’t want to hear about activities until they are actively involved. That’s not true. They want to know and be appropriately informed and involved right from the start. This is also the foundation of effective change management.
Hold informal “Ask the PM” coffee sessions once a week. This is when you are online, having a sip of your favourite beverage, and anyone can drop in virtually and ask a question to find out what’s happening on the project. You may be surprised who shows up and tells you what is really going on (or not) in a project. Again, you can help isolated individuals connect the dots between various activities, decisions and plans. By helping them see the big picture, you are helping them better appreciate the part they play. This is highly motivating for workers who may feel like cogs-in-a-wheel.
Have a project open house. This is where you invite everyone who is even remotely involved in or impacted by your project to an info sharing session. Get your project team members to present 5 minute lightning sessions. These should be short bursts of information. Again, if you don’t do all the talking but get key change agents to do the presenting, it engages the rank-and-file who may listen more and be better persuaded by a peer who is leading the change.
Doing these will help keep your project on the radar and avoid the situation where a stakeholder complains that they didn’t know or was not kept informed about the progress and what needs to happen next.
The economy is in recession. Some say it is going to be the biggest recession since the Great Depression in the 1930s. If that is the case, then this is a great opportunity for those who don’t currently hold any stocks–students especially–to start investing. If the stock market is at its lowest levels, then it can only go up in the future but it may take a long time. Since you are young, you have lots of time to wait for the recovery, and if you don’t currently hold any investments, you are not starting from negative. Here’s the basics on how to start investing:
Firstly, a disclaimer. I am not a financial advisor so this is not professional advice. Use at your own risk. Check other internet sources listed below and/or consult a financial advisor.
Tax Free Savings Account (TFSA) or Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP)? You need to start reporting income to earn RRSP contribution room. Also the best way to leverage RRSP is to decrease current tax from a higher tax bracket to a lower tax bracket. Assuming you earn less than $20,000 per year, you pay minimal tax so should save your RRSP contribution room for future high-income years. For more info, see: https://www.wealthsimple.com/en-ca/learn/rrsp-vs-tfsa
Limit risk using Passive Index Investing. Purchasing individual stocks is risky, very risky. Nobody knows the future and no one can predict when an individual stock rises or falls. Enter index investing where instead of investing in a single stock, you purchase a index of thousands of companies. If one company goes bust, the impact is tempered by the rest of the market. So what you get is market returns. To learn more, visit Canadian Couch Potato Investing and read Andrew Hallam’s Millionaire Teacher.
Which bank? Check out the Model Portfolios and choose a financial institution to start your TFSA. Both Andrew Hallam and Canadian Couch Potato mention TD e-Series a lot. If you go with TD, the good news is there is no trading fee to buy and sell TD e-Series mutual funds. The bad news is there is a $25 quarterly charge to maintain your account unless:
You contribute $100 a month, or
You maintain a balance of $15,000, or
Your household has at least $15,000 of investments with TD.